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Visualizing emergent electron orders in 2D materials.
Xiaomeng Liu, Princeton University
Two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene, are atomically thin crystals exfoliated from layered materials. Recent developments have enabled scientists to isolate 2D materials with various electronic properties and assemble them into van der Waals heterostructures with elaborate arrangements and precise crystalline alignments. This ability to construct materials layer-by-layer has allowed engineering of the band structure and interactions of electrons to cultivate novel quantum states of matter. A plethora of emergent quantum phases have been reported; some notable examples will be introduced in this talk. My presentation will focus on demonstrating scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy as powerful tools to examine emergent electron orders in 2D materials and 2D heterostructures. In particular, using spectroscopic imaging as a valley probe, we identified valley orders and visualized valley Skyrmions in the graphene quantum Hall ferromagnet. I will also discuss future experiments of exploring emergent quantum phases with STM and transport methods.